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Concept of "Average Buildings"

The determination of the monitoring indicators includes a certain effort of summarising and condensing. The EPISCOPE idea of "Average Buildings" is to take advantage of the exist-ence of the scenario indicators from national models to set up a very simple calculation scheme in parallel: The total values of all relevant input, interim and output quantities (number of apartments, floor area, envelope area, energy need for heating, final energy consumption, ...) are divided by the number of buildings counted in the building stock subgroup. So, "average buildings" are being constructed which are theoretical (synthetical) buildings with geometrical and thermo-physical characteristics equal to the average of the building stock subset which they represent. The annual energy balance for heating and DHW of average buildings are calculated in the same manner as for real buildings. Projections to the building stock can be done by multiplying the single building related figures with the total number of buildings.

The advantages of the definition and calculation of "average buildings" are:

  • for the making of a model: The simplified parallel calculation enables plausibility controls of the own model.
  • for the communication of results: The statements about the total building stock are more seizable, large numbers can be pictured. The datasets can also be used in conventional EPC rating software.
  • for the practical relevance of the model output: The results can be used as benchmarks to compare features and energy consumptions of distinct real buildings. Projections can be easily done for other subsets of the same building stock.

 

Against that background the EPISCOPE experts decided to use the average buildings concept for dissemination of parts of their results: For all case studies the basic case (existing state) was transformed to the TABULA data structure, entered in the TABULA.xlsm master file to be displayed in form of average buildings by the "Building Stocks" section of the TABULA WebTool (http://webtool.building-typology.eu/). So the documented average buildings provide a rough picture of the starting point of scenario calculations.

 

The WebTool section "Building Stocks" includes the following areas

  • Menu item "Overview": This table displays the key values of the observed building stocks in the present state. These are the scale level, the basic data (e.g. reference areas), the calculation results from the TABULA WebTool and from the individual building stock models.
  • Menu items for the case studies of the different countries, subsumed under "National", "Regional" and "Local". Here the TABULA building stock calculation can be viewed – in-cluding all input and output data. This calculation is performed using standard TABULA boundary conditions. At the end the relation of the results from the individual building stock model and from the TABULA standard calculation is determined. Under the precondition that the scenario models are validated or calibrated by real consumption values the relation separate model to simplified TABULA provides ratios for the calibration of the TABULA calculation to the typical level of measured consumption (for the given average state of the building stock subgroups).

Access to the TABULA WebTool - "Building Stocks" / "Average Buildings"

www.webtool.building-typology.eu

--> select section "Building Stocks"

 

 

 

Explanation of codes used for heat generators and energy carriers

Extract from the documentation of the TABULA method (http://episcope.eu/fileadmin/tabula/public/docs/report/TABULA_CommonCalculationMethod.pdf)

 

Heating system: heat generator types

Code_Type_SysHG

Name_Type_SysHG

Description_Type_SysHG

code of the heat generator type (heating system)

name of the heat generator type (heating system)

description of the heat generator type (heating system)

B

boiler

boiler (type unknown)

B_NC

boiler, non-condensing

non-condensing boiler (further details unknown)

B_NC_CT

boiler, non-condensing, constant temperature

constant temperature non-condensing boiler

B_NC_LT

boiler, non-condensing, low temperature

low temperature non-condensing boiler

B_C

boiler, condensing

condensing boiler

B_WP

wood-pellets boiler

boiler for combustion of wood pellets

G_IWH

gas-fired instantaneous water heater

instantaneous water heater, fired by gas (tankless)

G_IWH_NC

gas-fired instantaneous water heater, non-condensing

instantaneous water heater, fired by gas (tankless)

G_IWH_C

gas-fired instantaneous water heater, condensing

instantaneous water heater, fired by gas (tankless), condensing

G_SH

gas-fired space heater

gas-fired space heater

E

direct electric heat generator

direct electric, not specified: any device which uses electricity for direct heat generation, e.g. electric stoves (no heat pumps which use also heat from the environment)

E_Immersion

electric immersion heater

electric heating rod or coil, immersed in a water storage

E_Storage

electrical night storage space heater

electrical night storage space heater (off-peak storage heating), heat emission by convection

E_UnderFloor

electrical underfloor heating

electrical underfloor heating

E_SH

electrical space heater

electrical space heater: radiative heater or (forced) convection heater

HP

heat pump

heat pump (type unknown),  remark: also reversible engines that work as a cold generator in summer are to be considered here or (if heat source is known) below

HP_Air

heat pump, heat source external air

air source heat pump: heat pump, using the external air as the heat source

HP_Ground

heat pump, heat source ground

ground source heat pump (or geothermal heat pump): heat pump, using the ground as the heat source

HP_ExhAir

heat pump, heat source exhaust air

heat pump, using exhaust air of a ventilation system as the heat source

HP_Water

heat pump, heat source ground water

heat pump, using ground water or a water stream as the heat source

HP_Other

heat pump, other heat sources

heat pump, using more than one or other heat sources (e.g. industrial exhaust heat, low-temperature district heat)

Stove

stove

stove, fuel fired

Stove_L

stove for liquid fuels

stove for liquid fuels, especially oil stove

Stove_S

stove for solid fuels

stove for solid fuels, especially wood and coal

OpenFire

open fire

open fire (fireplace, mantle)

TS

district heating transfer station

heat exchanger (heat transfer station, heat substation) of a district heating system

CHP

combined heat and power generation

cogeneration system: combined heat and (electric) power generation

Solar

thermal solar plant

thermal solar plant

Steam

steam generator

steam generator (any type)

Other

other

other generator type

 

DHW system: heat generator types

Code_Type_SysWG

Name_Type_SysWG

Description_Type_SysWG

code of the heat generator type (domestic hot water system)

name of the heat generator type (domestic hot water system)

description of the heat generator type (domestic hot water system)

B

boiler

boiler (type unknown)

B_NC

boiler, non-condensing

non-condensing boiler (further details unknown)

B_NC_CT

boiler, non-condensing, constant temperature

constant temperature non-condensing boiler

B_NC_LT

boiler, non-condensing, low temperature

low temperature non-condensing boiler

B_C

boiler, condensing

condensing boiler

B_WP

wood-pellets boiler

boiler for combustion of wood pellets

G_IWH

gas-fired instantaneous water heater

instantaneous water heater, fired by gas (tankless)

G_IWH_NC

gas-fired instantaneous water heater, non-condensing

instantaneous water heater, fired by gas (tankless)

G_IWH_C

gas-fired instantaneous water heater, condensing

instantaneous water heater, fired by gas (tankless), condensing

G_Tank

gas burner for directly heated DHW tank

gas burner as a heating element of a domestic hot water tank (separately from space heating system)

E

direct electric heat generator, not specified

direct electric, not specified: any device which uses electricity for direct heat generation, e.g. electric heating element in water storage, instantaneous water heater

E_Immersion

electric immersion heater

electric heating rod or coil, immersed in a water storage

E_IWH

electric instantaneous water heater

electric instantaneous water heater (tankless)

HP

heat pump

heat pump (type unknown),  remark: also reversible engines that work as a cold generator in summer are to be considered here or (if heat source is known) below

HP_Air

heat pump, heat source external air

air source heat pump: heat pump, using the external air as the heat source

HP_Ground

heat pump, heat source ground

ground source heat pump (or geothermal heat pump): heat pump, using the ground as the heat source

HP_ExhAir

heat pump, heat source exhaust air

heat pump, using exhaust air of a ventilation system as the heat source

HP_Water

heat pump, heat source ground water

heat pump, using ground water or a water stream as the heat source

HP_Cellar

heat pump, heat source: cellar air

heat pump, using cellar air as heat source

HP_Other

heat pump, other heat sources

heat pump, using more than one or other heat sources (e.g. industrial exhaust heat, low-temperature district heat)

TS

district heating transfer station

heat exchanger (heat transfer station, heat substation) of a district heating system

CHP

combined heat and power generation

cogeneration system: combined heat and (electric) power generation

Solar

thermal solar plant

thermal solar plant

Steam

steam generator

steam generator (any type)

Other

other

other generator type

 

Energy carriers / energywares

Code_EnergyCarrier

Name_EnergyCarrier

Description_EnergyCarrier

identification of the energy carrier

name of the energy carrier

detailed description of the energy carrier

Gas

natural gas

natural gas, type unknown

Gas_E

natural gas E

natural gas E

Gas_LL

natural gas LL

natural gas LL

Gas_Liquid

liquid gas

liquid gas

Oil

heating oil

heating oil

Coal

coal

coal, type unknown

Coal_Hard

hard coal

hard coal

Coal_Lignite

lignite coal

lignite coal

Bio

biomass

biomass, type unknown

Bio_FW

firewood

firewood

Bio_WP

wood pellets

wood pellets

Bio_WC

wood chips

wood chips

Bio_Other

other biomass

biomass, if different from firewood or wood pellets

El

electricity

electricity

El_OP

off-peak electricity

off-peak electricity

El_Prod

electricity production

electricity production by combined heat-power generation

DH

district heating

district heating, type unknown

DH_Gas_NoCHP

district heating gas without chp

district heating, fuel gas, heat generation without combined heat and power (chp)

DH_Gas_CHP33

district heating gas with 33% chp

district heating, fuel gas, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 33%

DH_Gas_CHP67

district heating gas with 67% chp

district heating, fuel gas, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 67%

DH_Gas_CHP100

district heating gas with 100% chp

district heating, fuel gas, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 100%

DH_Oil_NoCHP

district heating oil without chp

district heating, fuel oil, heat generation without combined heat and power (chp)

DH_Oil_CHP33

district heating oil with 33% chp

district heating, fuel oil, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 33%

DH_Oil_CHP67

district heating oil with 67% chp

district heating, fuel oil, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 67%

DH_Oil_CHP100

district heating oil with 100% chp

district heating, fuel oil, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 100%

DH_Coal_NoCHP

district heating coal without chp

district heating, fuel coal, heat generation without combined heat and power (chp)

DH_Coal_CHP33

district heating coal with 33% chp

district heating, fuel coal, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 33%

DH_Coal_CHP67

district heating coal with 67% chp

district heating, fuel coal, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 67%

DH_Coal_CHP100

district heating coal with 100% chp

district heating, fuel coal, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 100%

DH_Bio_NoCHP

district heating biomass without chp

district heating, fuel biomass, heat generation without combined heat and power (chp)

DH_Bio_CHP33

district heating biomass with 33% chp

district heating, fuel biomass, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 33%

DH_Bio_CHP67

district heating biomass with 67% chp

district heating, fuel biomass, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 67%

DH_Bio_CHP100

district heating biomass with 100% chp

district heating, fuel biomass, heat generation with combined heat and power (chp) fraction 100%

Other

other

other energy carriers

-

not existent

not existent or no energyware (e.g. solar heat produced in the building)