FR France - Scenario Results and Monitoring Approaches
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Tracking the Energy Performance of a Social Housing Company in the City of Montreuil
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Last updated: 19.05.2016
|Scale||No. of dwellings||No. of buildings||No. of inhabitants||m² reference area|
|Local||10,504||333||30,000 (approx.)||667,350 (living area)|
Description of the action
According to the energy concept of the French Government, consumptions of the French residential building stock need to be reduced by 38 % by 2020. And CO2 emissions by 4 by 2050 (compared to data based on 1990).
Apart from the government’s “Grenelle de l’Environnement” and its main target of dividing by 4 the CO2 emissions by 2050, the French social housing sector, represented by 4.5 million dwellings, is more specifically concerned with its objective of renovating at least 800 000 of the most energy inefficient dwellings by 2020 (in other words, those consuming more than 230 kWh/m²/year have to consume less than 150 kWh/m²/year after refurbishment). The French Government also thinks of implementing a climate-neutral level for new buildings (NZEB) over its next efficient building regulation, also by 2020.
The France EPISCOPE project’s pilot actions focuses on the building stock of one social housing company in particular, called “Office Public de l’Habitat Montreuillois” (OPHM) and located in Montreuil, near Paris.
During the project, different scenarios have been analysed to find the minimum level of refurbishments that is compatible with the governments’ target of dividing by 4 the CO2 emissions by 2050. Levels of performance of refurbishments of the building stock have been defined according to the current knowledge met in the field, the possible evolution of strategy during 2015-2050 period and the compatibility of each level with the targets:
- Trend level: “Réglementation Thermique Elément par Elément”, the level of the French regulation for existing buildings.
- Standard level: label BBC Rénovation
- Excellent level: Label EnerPhit, PassivHaus’ label for refurbishments.
The new buildings built between 2015 and 2050 are also been taken into account. They were considered as built with the requirements of 2012’s French efficient building regulation standard (RT 2012).
Different refurbishments and renewal rates are used in the scenarios, based on actual observations of the building stock. In particular, the analysis took into account the housing company’s real current state as the basic case. Project scenarios have been developed on the period until 2050.The first results encourage global refurbishments with an excellent energy performance.
Evolution of CO2 emissions for different scenarios comparing a moderate evolution of renewable energies to an ambitious evolution of renewable energies.
The scenario analysis done on the building stock of OPH Montreuillois bring us to many different conclusions and some of them can be generalized to the whole national residential building stock, or at least, to the building stock located in climate zone H1.
The achievement of climate protection targets defined by the government lead to three essential pillars upon which the energy plan of OPH Montreuillois’ building stock but also the French residential sector must be based:
- An ambitious refurbishment rate of the existing building stock, targeting an excellent level of refurbishment for each refurbishment;
- For new buildings : an energy performance that go beyond the energy performance required by RT 2012 ;
- An ambitious program for implementing renewable energies to reach at least a covering of 80% of the energy demand with renewable energies by 2050.
Ambitious refurbishments means that the requirements should go towards passive level, using triple glazing and ventilation systems with heat recovery for refurbishments done in the H1 climate zone. It’s important to reach this level on all buildings where it’s possible to achieve it, as there will always be buildings where technically, economically and for patrimonial reasons this level will certainly be not reachable.
RT 2012’s requirements for new buildings are not sufficient to achieve the targets. Even the requirements of the “Effinergie+” label seems not to be enough, and this is particularly verified for the north of France. The energy performance requirements should target as soon as possible the passive level.
The transition towards renewable energies should also accelerate. In the case of OPH Montreuillois’ building stock, it’s necessary to reach a renewable energy rate between 65% and 80% to divide by 4 the CO2 emissions, even with the most ambitious scenario for refurbishments and new constructions.
The Public Housing Office Montreuillois (OPHM) is a social housing body created by the city of Montreuil in France.
- The first social housing organism of the city of Montreuil;
- 60 M€ of budget dedicated to investments and 7,5 M€ dedicated to major maintenance of their buildings;
- Every year, 150 new dwellings built.
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